Far more than trivial gifts and Weihnachtsgebäck came to Herrnhut with the holiday season of 1733. Pilgrims, sent out by the brothers, had begun to return with encouraging, but thought-provoking reports. Among those who found their way to Herrnhut with them, was a young seeker from the University of Jena, August Gottlieb Spangenberg. He asked serious questions and serious discussions ensued.
In their discussions the awakened believers at Herrnhut spoke of their Czech and Waldensian background. They mentioned the influence of Lutheran Pietism and of German sectarians upon them. “But where does the Saviour want us to go from here?” they asked one another. “With whom? And how?”
Pondering these questions, and more, Ludwig von Zinzendorf sat by the fire in his house on a cold day. Someone had emptied a trashcan into the flames and he noticed how a scrap of paper fell from the fire without getting burned. Picking it up he saw it was a Watchword, followed by two lines from a familiar German hymn: “Lass uns in deiner Nägelmaal, erblicken unsre Gnadenwahl” (let us see in your nail wounds how you have chosen us through grace).
For a moment Ludwig stood silent while the significance of the Watchword dawned on him. Then, overcome with adoration and holy joy, he fell on his face before Christ. To Ludwig von Zinzendorf and all believers at Herrnhut, the Lord began to reveal, on this winter day, a “Theology of Blood.”
In Christ’s blood and wounds, not in human tradition, would Herrnhut find the right way to go.
In Christ’s blood and wounds, not in narrow demoninationalism, would it discover true fellowship.
Preaching Christ’s blood and wounds, no more, no less, its Pilgrim messengers would find their way to the ends of the earth.
Once he saw Christ’s blood and wounds Ludwig felt free to let self-righteous Pietism—do good, say your prayers, watch out for sin—go. Suddenly he knew that no amount of Frommigkeit (pious works) would save him. He felt the greatness of his own sin and at the same time, wonderful cleansing in Christ’s blood, an immersion by faith in its life-giving stream, and refuge in the wound in his side.1
As the entire community at Herrnhut entered with Ludwig into the reality of this “blood experience” all other concepts of religion faded out among them. They lost sight of everything but Christ’s blood and wounds to such an extent that Ludwig could write, years later: “Since 1734 the reconciling sacrifice of Jesus has become our particular and public and only subject matter, our universal weapon against all evil in teaching and practice, and so it shall remain, into eternity.”2
In the awakening of 1727 the Lord had already transformed the life and practice of Herrnhut’s believers. Now, in the awakening of 1734, he transformed what they believed.
Fountain of Eternal Life
Like Eve sprang to life out of Adam’s side, the Moravians saw the church springing to life from Christ’s holy Seitenschrein (side wound). In it they found the refuge and “true matrix” of the church, giving new birth to souls—the fountain of eternal life in which to baptise all believers “in the Saviour’s blood and water and buried in the hollow of his wound.” Ludwig von Zinzendorf wrote:
It is known what a strong cement the ancients used in their buildings, so that a whole wall was like one stone. But ours excels all. When our house is joined together by the Lamb’s blood, and not the least pebble put in without having the moisture of his wounds upon it, we shall be indissoluble. . . . The pierced side of Jesus is the central point from which all that is spiritual may be deduced. There we find the square root of all spiritual and heavenly matters and on it our system is based.3
A later Moravian historian described what happened:
All the formal details of their faith were in practice so overshadowed by the one doctrine of the vicarious atonement that this became their distinguishing mark in worship, belief, and conversation. The atonement was so mysterious to them that they shrank from any explanation of the controversial words, “this is my body.” Their teaching and preaching were exclusively Christo-centric, not Christological, always directing their thoughts to the sacrificial death of Christ and his Passion.4
Every one of us lies in a deep sleep, dreaming of what we see and hear, the Moravians believed, until the Lord Christ wakes us up. Then, to the degree we “see” Christ, we see reality. Ludwig wrote:
Through great wrestlings of the soul, through thick smoke and fog, through perils of body and spirit, I push my way through to the hosts of the triumphant, to you unbeaten wonder hero, who overthrows all foes for me. While the mustard seed of my faith stirs itself and brings me to lie like a child at your feet, the enemies may cry that I am a fool. I will not fear that I will lose to them a hair. My faith triumphs. I focus on the Wonderful. My all is more than all the world to me, my friend forever true, my Bridegroom red and white, my Paschal Lamb, my guiding star, my love, my beauty, fort, and banner through eternity!5
Jesus, loved from the heart, look and see my heart aflame for you! I seek and run for all I’m worth. No one gets ahead of me. I must find you myself. I must touch and feel you. Is this too bold? Do I want more than what is right? Have I forgotten modesty and overstepped my bounds? If so, forgive me! Love makes me a child!
If I just think, beloved Life, faithful Friend chosen above all others, how you gave yourself for me and how you meant it so gloriously well—I dissolve in great desire to see you, Lord! The reason for my joy in you comes from your goodness. Your fire burns within me. It blazes up within my inner man. In the zeal of my love I reject the world and call it crazy. With soul and spirit I long for your pastures, Immanuel. Come to me in the shepherd’s clothes that men and angels praise. See, I am a weak lamb. Care for me and protect me!
Come Jesus, see the fire in my soul for you! Feed the flame! Fan it more! Let no one quench it. Let it burn until the light of grace consumes me as a whole!6
First hundreds, then thousands upon thousands of hymns written at Herrnhut expressed the Moravians’ fascination with Christ:
Jesus hear me! My hope is in you! I want to meet you on the way to be led by you! You are my sun. Please do not disappear while I walk through dark and hidden places where light and courage may fail. You are my rest and freedom from the woes of the day! You are my true peace, when I am weary and storms rage about my heart. You are my paradise and sure retreat! Fullness of tranquility, refreshing coolness after the heat of battle! Friend above all others, sincere from the heart, and who, upon noticing the distress of those he loves, comes quickly to comfort them. You are my blessing, my Christ! Take me from the region of Satan’s attack into the fold of which you are shepherd. Let me die in you, so you may live in me! This is how I obtain salvation. Open the door for me! Oh what blessedness, rest, and time of hope! Oh what joy in the light of the Son that keeps on shining there!7
In his speeches to seekers at Berlin, Ludwig said:
Our aim is for everyone to keep up a close conversation with the Saviour. And I am concerned for nothing else but that this would be the case with all of us—that it becomes as natural for us to speak with Christ about anything, great or small, as it is to speak with a brother. I am concerned that before opening our mouths to say anything one to another, we would first have first spoken with the Saviour—and that our speaking one with another is done to maintain fellowship of spirits rather than to seek in it our nearest refuge. . . . Let us be diligent, therefore, in conversing with the Saviour and maintaining a correspondence with his heart.
There must be no possibility that anyone should see us in the morning, or that the light and air should greet us before we have been in conversation with the Lamb. Before any of that takes place, we must be able to say, “He and I have talked a good while together.” Should anyone—at least after we are awake—question it, we should be ready to tell him: “I have not been separated from him all night!”8
Light of the Trinity
The believers at Herrnhut, overcome with the glory of Christ and the saving power of his blood, did not deliberately change their theology. But shortly after 1734 their critics began to point to what they called a “heretical pre-eminence of Christ” in the community’s life and teaching. In response, Ludwig wrote:
The driest theology that has filled the world is the one of those who talk forever about the Father but skip over the Son. That is the devil’s theology. The devil points people to the Father, thinking they will never get to see him anyway, and by doing it so nicely he manages to lead them around the Saviour. The devil places a huge theatrical scene of the Father before the people, hoping to keep them entertained with it, and to keep them convinced that the theologians who figured it out were very wise.9
Believers at Herrnhut related in a personal way to Christ—exclusively. “Prayer to anyone but Christ,” Ludwig von Zinzendorf stated in a public meeting, “is totally unnecessary.”10 Convinced, like him, that “no one comes to the Father except through me [Christ]” the Moravians loved the Lord Sebaoth (God in his omnipresence), and called him “dear Father,” but only because he was the father of Christ. Their relationship to him was like that of a boy to his closest friend’s father—respectful, but strictly coincidental.
The Moravians saw Christ the King as head of the “Court of Elohim” (the heavenly Sanhedrin) and Light of the Trinity. Exactly who the other “persons of the Godhead” were, they did not undertake to define, but spoke of the Father God and the Mother Spirit (die Gemeinmutter) as assistants to Christ the Ruling Son. Sometimes they spoke of Jehovah as their Grandfather or Father-in-law, through Christ. They also believed that God (Christ) is distinctively One God.
“We do not disagree with the Socinians that a common reasonable man ought to worship only one God,” an early writing from Herrnhut stated, “but the dispute between us is: Who is that God?”
“If it were possible that there should be another God than Christ,” Ludwig declared, “I would rather be damned with Christ than happy with another.”
Pattern For The Universe
“Let the one who desires to please God take Christ for his example,” wrote a hymn writer at Herrnhut. “Let him, with a humble spirit and diligence, do everything Christ commands. There is no other way, nor gate, nor door.” 11 Others enlarged on the theme:
Blessed be the diligent soldiers of Christ! Those who refuse to pull on the ropes of sin, who free themselves from pride, hatred, and lust, who overcome the world and bring their own spirits into subjection. Only those who follow Christ in everything are his true soldiers. Those for whom Christ is the way, the light, and the guide, willingly carry his reproach. But those who refuse to go with him to Gethsemane will not share Tabor’s glory with him. Go on, soldiers of Christ! Suffer and do, as Jesus has shown you how! Let his innocence clothe you and you will remain in his ranks. The one who loves Christ, seeks nothing but to be his companion in the fight!12
The chick runs after its mother hen and loves to hear its mother’s voice. Help me, Saviour, to follow you like that. . . . Your life shows me my duty. You are my mirror and my light. Oh Lord, how far I still am from being just like you!
You watched out for the enemy. . . .You served your Father with reverence. You kept yourself far removed from idle laughing and joking. Help me to be watchful and serious-minded too. You died to your fleshly desires, and lived to please God. . . .
You trusted him completely. . . . In suffering you were like a lamb, not opening your mouth. Give me such patience when others mistreat me. Help me to take it as a discipline from God, and not as from men. You liked to be alone and preferred quietness. On the mountain and in the wilderness you prayed, sometimes all night long. Your life was a constant prayer. . . .
You stood with the poor and suffering, and showed patience to the erring. . . . Yet when God’s honour was at stake you took a clear stand. You did not fear fat-bellied and important, the high, the educated, and the rich. Give me that fearless zeal as well, with wisdom and holy insight! Even though men call your way of life subversive and heretical (schwärmerisch und ketzerisch), even though all men shall be ashamed of your way, and even though our neighbours turn against us for following you, we pass through great poverty, distress, and trouble (viel Elend, Angst, und Trübsal) to rejoice on Mount Zion around your throne. If anyone think this way of life is impossible or too complicated, he does not know the teaching of Christ, nor his love. If he would, nothing would seem impossible. In my heart I know that the right and narrow way, the way of the cross, is the only way to you!13
The believers at Herrnhut referred continually to the example of Christ. But they did not hold unrealistic ideas of imitating him in everything. August Gottlieb Spangenberg, known after his conversion as Brother Josef, wrote:
“Christ left us an example that we should follow in his steps” (1 Peter 2:21). If we follow this admonition from the heart, our ways will be full of blessing. . . . Yet it is very plain, that while imitating Christ, we should not try to do what he did while on earth as a result of his mediatorial office, and as the great prophet sent by God into the world. For if anyone should try to make the blind see, the deaf hear, the dumb speak, and the lame walk, in imitation of Christ, he would be as much mistaken as if another would, in imitation of Christ, make a cord and whip to drive those out of the church that have as little right be be there as the sheep and oxen had to be in the outer court of the temple.
To imitate Christ, as the Scripture tell us, means only in those areas in which he operated as a man—just like other men, yet without sin. It means, for instance, that we should humble ourselves like he did, choosing to be poor rather than rich in the world. The Scriptures say, “Let everyone that believes on him think like Christ Jesus” (Phil. 2:5). He did not please himself, so we should not please ourselves either (Rom 15:1-3). He denied himself and took up his cross, and anyone that wishes to be his follower must do the same (Mark 3:24).14
“Give me Lord what your children must have to be of use to you,” Brother Ludwig wrote, “Give me a yoke that fits my neck!” Expressing what all believers at Herrnhut felt, he continued:
Jesus gave us a powerful command that not everyone likes to hear: “Take up your cross and follow me!” Jesus carried his cross and showed us the way to go. He marked it with his sweat and blood. But it leads to glory!
Even before the Messiah’s time, all who would be rewarded with him suffered. That great number of men and women of whom the world was not worthy moved in trouble from place to place and had it tough beyond words.
Why should we not want to have our name in the register of the brave? Why should we not want to suffer for the crown? The evil suffer too, and put forth great effort for things that are not worth it. Let them suffer in vain if they want to. But I have chosen the way where from the seed of the cross one harvests eternal joy!15
God placed men on the earth to rejoice in its beauty and to care for it--not only through hard work and sweat, but also on good days when life goes well and prosperity surrounds them. Christians, however, are not here to have a nice time nor to prosper. Their calling is: “Follow Christ!” They follow him through reproach, forcing their way through narrow places, resisting pressure from without and within, to break forth at last into the place where Christ has broken down the door.16
A New Nature
Even though the awakened at Herrnhut recognised an ongoing “sinful nature” within them, they did not expect it to rule their lives. Neither did they depend on laws and rules to keep it in check. In his messages to seekers in Berlin, Ludwig explained how some try, like Moses, to make men moral through the outward force of the law. “But in this,” he said, “lies the biggest dispute between us and Christian theologians.”
They cannot understand why we lay aside the law (with its moral schemes). They think nothing other than libertinism will follow because of the evil imaginations of men’s hearts. But we say the inclination of a child of God is good. It is not true as they say, that even in children of God the first motions are those of a corrupt nature that must be curbed with constant good reflections and efforts. No. After we become born again our first thoughts tend toward the Saviour. . . . I believe that if an affection for worldly splendour and a craving for sin still occupy first place in a man’s thoughts, or if his inner inclinations still move him to act against the mind of Christ, the Saviour has never yet resided in his heart.
Setting aside all aid of the understanding, even while delirious in a fever, our speech and actions, no matter how confused and weak they may be, must yet testify who is uppermost within. In short, our inclination must constantly be toward what is worthy of Christ. If anything to the contrary shows itself within him . . . or if he begins to feel otherwise, the child of God must certainly be in such a terror that his hair is ready to stand on end!
As long as any object or creature can yield us greater joy than the wounds and person of Christ—as long as we can, even for a fleeting instant, wink at somewhat that is contrary to his principles and glory—we are still unconverted.17
“Timid and ashamed” on receiving grace in their “sinnerlike weakness,” the believers at Herrnhut easily assumed an “altogether tiny and inwardly stooped over (ganz klein und inwendig gebeugt)” disposition. They frequently referred to themselves in letters as “little worms at the feet of Christ” and addressed one another only as “Brother” or “Sister,” believing titles of rank unbecoming. “What does it help to fill our heads with notions of how things are?” asked Ludwig von Zinzendorf. “What does it help to fill our eyes with sights of the temporal? Much better it is to quiet our hearts in holy Gelassenheit (detachment). Much better it is to hang our wills and thoughts with Jesus on the cross, and be a fleck of dust before him. Jesus make me tiny! Through your holy blood make me clean and I will lose myself in you!”18
“The queen of all sins is Hochmuth (haughty pride),” the brothers agreed. “If a man is proud he absolutely cannot be saved, nor can his sins be forgiven. We have no example of the Saviour ever healing or forgiving a proud person. But he saved adulterers who humbled themselves. The proud are the world’s greatest and foremost sinners and in the Gemeine everything depends on becoming very small.”19 In other statements on the subject, believers at Herrnhut confessed:
Only the teaching of the blood and of the Lamb will preserve our children from the greatest sin, that is Hochmuth. In the training of our children we can give them no other example than that of the Lamb who thought nothing of himself, and did nothing for personal glory. If they follow the Lamb they will not walk into sin, yet the children from our Gemeine, must also feel and confess that they are sinners to be saved.
One does not find the Saviour through philosophy. The basis of worldly philosophy stands in direct contradiction to the Saviour and enmity against him is everywhere apparent in what the philosophers say.20
To have a high opinion of self, or to be presumptuous, is a terrible sin. Ambition and jealousy, so easily evident among young children, if left unchecked, can turn our little ones into devils. In this it becomes evident how much depends on our training of children.21
“The Saviour was and is a poor man,” wrote the brothers in 1753. “The one who desires a close relationship with him must stay poor in material things. He must work and face at least a little hardship to supply his daily needs.”
A hymn writer at Herrnhut wrote:
Proud spirit, high opinion of mine, go look in the dark stable where the Saviour lies, curled up like a worm in poverty and helplessness—our Saviour, God and King! Go there and look, proud selfwill, and inflated spirit!
High spirit of mine, the brotherhood of Christ is small, yet mighty. Poverty is in, and around, and with it. Sink into it to become small and humble. The Saviour goes on before. Throw yourself into the dust, proud spirit, bring down what is high in me!22
To this the Manual of Doctrine added:
Q. What well-grounded presumption do the children of God have against the rich of this world?
A. That they oppress the Brethren and draw them before judgement seats and blaspheme that worthy name whereby they are called.
Q. How do the children of God look on temporal things.
A. They are not to lay up for themselves treasures on earth.
Q. But if they have somewhat?
A. Sell what you have.
Q. How are they to communicate the gifts they have freely received?
Q. What is the disciples’ chief maxim?
A. Whoever does not forsake all that he hath cannot be his disciple (Luke 14:33)
Brother Josef wrote:
One thing in particular, seems out of keeping with the providence of God. By far the most people are poor. Many are slaves or bondmen, living in misery and keeping themselves alive only with great difficulty—the fruit of their hard labour only serving to increase their masters’ luxury and greed. If they do anything wrong they receive merciless punishment. If they beget children, they know beforehand that they will live in slavery and bondage like themselves. Even where people do not live in actual slavery or bondage, the strong oppress the weak.
Now, if God sees everything that happens on earth, how can he possibly allow all this? Should he not lift his arm and destroy those who abuse their fellow humans?
To this we may answer: God does not think about poverty and riches like we do. He knows that poverty, not wealth, preserves men from a great number of sins. And to what place do wealth and luxury lead us?
If the truth must be said, we have very little good to report of the conduct of men with means. For the most part they forget God and his commandments. They forget they are but stewards of material things and that God will call them to account for how they use them. Of all people on earth, they are the most unfit for the kingdom of God and our Lord says of them (the wealthy) that it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for one of them to enter his kingdom.
The poor, on the other hand, have far less hindrances. Thorns—that is, the cares of this world according to our Lord’s parable—and the deceitfulness of riches, do not choke the word of God in them. Their understanding is not blurred by philosophical deceits as are those of the wealthy and the educated. Their self-esteem does not grow through flatteries like those offered to the rich. They escape hundreds of temptations to evil that the rich eagerly pursue. Material need drives them to God, and in eternity we shall see why untold numbers have reason to bless God not for temporary goods received, but for having been allowed to be poor in this world.
The believers at Herrnhut recognised Heilige Einfalt (holy simplicity) as the distinguishing mark of all who followed Christ. Brother Josef wrote:
Heilige Einfalt! Wonder of grace! Depth of wisdom, greatest power, supreme adornment, source of love! Work within us that God alone can accomplish! All liberties become bonds, all riches fly away, all beauty becomes shameful, if we do not have it!
Seeing clearly with Einfalt (a single eye) our souls light up inside. But if we see double, everything blurs and our vision grows dim. The one who trusts Jesus alone, the one who finds all things in him, rests on the rock—a child in the blessing of grace.23
Another hymn writer wrote:
The narrow way is wide enough for life. If one walks carefully, straight, and still, one will not easily be blown from it. One must concentrate on it all the time, then it is truly wide enough for life. The way of Christ is full of sweet pleasures if one walks it correctly—that is, with faith. And if one puts his heart into it, joyfully, preparing well for the journey, it is full of sweet pleasures.
How can a bear be gentle like a sheep? Or wild wolves submit to close restriction? How can the flesh be minded to obey God and love the way of the Spirit? It is impossible. A bear cannot be gentle like a sheep. Spirit must be born of Spirit before we can walk the Spirit’s narrow way. Otherwise it is complicated, and does not work. Worldly minds, be gone! Worldly pleasures, go away! Of Spirit my spirit must be born.
The one born of Christ, follows him only, with a true heart. He suffers, he bears reproach with Christ, before he goes with him, rejoicing, into light. The one born of Christ, is buried with him in death. He rises with Christ and ascends with him to heaven. He receives the gifts of the Spirit of Christ, if he is willing to die with him.
The Spirit that directed Christ, directs his disciples. The same Spirit does the same things for both. There is only one way of the Spirit and Christ’s disciples walk that way. It does not matter if the way passes through thorns. Only with our heels we tread on thorns. Sorrow causes no deep hurt if we press on, comforted and steadfast, through death and hell (the grave).
The light yoke cannot rest heavy upon us. It only crushes what is evil—the new man goes free! The yoke of Christ does not crush the one who knows how to carry it. It is light and easy. Its light and pleasant burden makes our inner beings glad. It lifts our hearts. Our Spirits gain new courage and our lives wake up to bloom. We taste the goodness of God when our light burdens make our inner beings glad.
Show me, Jesus, show me how to follow you! I am still far behind. Your narrow way is full of sweet pleasures. Good things follow us on it. Show me, Jesus, show me how to walk like you!24
One only enjoys an undivided heart by keeping one’s focus on Christ. Brother Ludwig wrote:
Whoever wants true holiness . . . must look for it in the heart and person of Jesus. He must know nothing but that the Saviour loves him and love him in return. Then, no matter if he is a child, a youth, or a man, he will become what he ought to be, accepted in the beloved and resting in the Father’s affection like Jesus himself during the stages of his earthly life. He may have defects. He may weep sometimes, and be cheerful. Yet he belongs to the family. . . . And his heart delights in becoming humble, faithful, chaste, kind, and gracious, like the Lamb.
The moment we begin to live and act in Christ he makes us holy. He transforms us so that we begin to think like he does in every situation. We begin to believe, to hope, to weep, and to rejoice like him. Truthfully, we begin to long for him in love, whether eating, drinking, working, doing business, sleeping, or anything else. In a sense we become absent characters, only half engaged in what we do, because our souls run after him. . . . At times he lets us feel his nearness, appearing to us in his bleeding form, so we may be patient with our earthly state for the time being.25
Another hymn writer at Herrnhut wrote:
I went tapping along, blind, in the wilderness. My mind and motives were in the dark. My impure will was aflame with worldly passions. But when the faithful shepherd found me and guided me back onto the right way, ungodliness left and in faith I was born again!
Jesus kills the impulse to sin when the old man is put off. Raging waves of temptation lie back and become still, when he as much as lifts his finger against them. He comes to live in the heart and lights its guiding lamps by which to walk in faith through purity, righteousness, and holiness—the proofs of the godly life.26
Innocence and Joy
Not uncommonly, when asked how they were, believers at Herrnhut answered “kindvergnügt” (happy as a child). Living no longer with fears of the past (guilt), worries about the present, or future concerns, they relaxed in Christ like children in the presence of a loving parent. This set them free to sing, to rejoice in fellowship together, or even to play in a manner most unfamiliar to the rest of Europe at the time. In a message, Ludwig von Zinzendorf said:
It would be unmerciful to forbid all diversions. To condemn even innocent pleasures is a characteristic of melancholy minds. [Innocent pleasures] may be useful, if for nothing else than to sweeten this mortal existence for those who have nothing better.
The one who becomes a new person in Jesus Christ sees mortality in an altogether different light. . . . He notices what is pleasant in it, even as things now stand. His slavery ends and he fears no longer. He lifts up his head in sickness and age, for redemption, not fear, stands before him. He does not anticipate Sheol nor eternal silence, but expects to leave his body to be present with the Lord. . . . Whatever seemed illogical and offensive to him before, now demands his respect and awe. He thinks like Jesus, does all physical functions like him, prays, works, journeys, sickens and dies like him.27
Fully conscious of Christ’s humanity, and patterning their lives after his earthly example, the Moravians accepted all of human experience straightforwardly and with common sense. They believed every Christian, the married as well as the single, could (and should) follow Christ. “We ask our married couples to be aware of the presence of Christ in all their affairs,” agreed the brothers in 1753, “so that they may live before him in joy.”
Moral purity, they also associated with cleansing through faith in the blood. Even though they did not practice outward circumcision, Ludwig von Zinzendorf wrote:
Through the merit of the wound of circumcision we trust our choirs will live in sanctity and that our youth and virgins will keep their bodies from a dissolute nature, reserved to the Creator alone. Doing this, they will be able to use them for his service in a right way, if and when it shall be his will [in marriage]. And in the state of marriage we also trust that the perfectly chaste man, Jesus Christ, will free the act of begetting children from the enchantment of uncontrolled lust (entwined into this act as if by magic), according to his original plan. We trust he will also free our women from the usual dread of child bearing, and make this act—even though it is painful—such a holy experience of worship to God that they can rejoice in it body and soul.28
In celebrations of pre-marital purity and the consecration of their bodies to Christ, the young sisters found fellowship with Mary whose heart the Saviour’s presence had warmed. The young brothers’ choir, on the other hand, held the occasional Beschneidungsfest (circumcision feast) “in honour of Christ’s first wound.” For this, Ludwig, wrote a hymn:
Head of the young men of your people of grace . . . most holy wound of the covenant that you as a small boy received in your member—otherwise known as the member of shame but through this cut restored to its place of reverent honour—may you be praised with a hundred thousand tears by the choir that understands the depth of your secret covenant! From the first drop of blood from this wound . . . now comprehended by the choir that sees the human body through spiritual eyes, the old system of shame-ideas began to disappear. . . . The young boys’ choir has become the joy of the church, converted and consecrated to a host of young men for Christ! Hail to the march of the church! Hail to the ranks of our youth, and to the youthful Jesus’ praise!
This sacramental wound is a wound of dedication. It casts down the ideas of the world and renews creation’s glory in us. In the choir we no longer think like people used to. We no longer live in suspense, nor in a vacuum of lack of knowledge. Now we can think like the Creator when he designed our bodies. We see his holy destination for our bodies like Jesus saw it when he was a young man. . . .
The pain of the covenant wound takes with it what still belongs to the power of sin. . . . The wheel of nature, always turning back to active sin, is stopped by the cut that severs the birth-hood from the most honoured member and makes the desire of youth like Jesus’ mortified body. . . . Then the fierceness departs, and the ways of the Lamb appear in the face of youth. . . . After young men become permeated with Jesus-likeness, nothing shows itself in their members anymore that is not like Jesus. Their bodies may look just like before, but Christ who suffered this agony becomes visible in the whole choir, that even in their bedrooms set nothing before one another but the image of Joseph’s son.
With the wound of the covenant, the reproductive power of young men is consecrated and legitimized in the choir. . . . And even though our congregation has sorted out a number of young men and destined them for marriage, those who are still bent before the Lamb in their unmarried state, seek to become like Jesus in everything until every last member of the body honours him alone.
It is also within God’s plan, when one of the Jesus-like young men proceeds to holy marriage. It may cause sadness (on the part of those left behind) but when the Lamb himself comes and calls one of his servants to become a member of the married congregation, it is a joy to all. . . . Therefore, may God Consecrator, God the man of all states of life, God the praise of the church, be honoured before all the world. He who fulfills his purposes in the church sprinkled with his blood—the church that awaits your flame, Creator God, Man and Lamb!29
In their choirs, the believers at Herrnhut observed the separatio sexus (segregation of men and women) with zeal. A wall even separated brothers from sisters during worship in the Saal.
Along with this, the congregation early turned to the use of the lot to discern the Lord’s will in marriage (young men drawing papers with names from a box that always held a blank or two). Worldly romance had no place in Herrnhut. Complete resignation to the Saviour’s choice took its place, and marriage, for the Moravians, became nothing but “a practical means of advancing God’s kingdom,” or a “strategic union to promote spiritual development.” Nevertheless—unlike their critical neighbours expected—young men and women who found each other in this atmosphere of Gelassenheit (personal surrender of the will) rather than the passion of romance, virtually always established joyful and stable homes.
Sins of a moral nature among the Moravians were rare, and divorce unknown.
Following Christ, the Moravians returned at once to his teachings in the Sermon on the Mount, and to the practice of their ancestors, Petr Chelčický, and the Poor. Brother Ludwig, soon after the renewal of the brotherhood, said publicly:
Our congregation does not hold to the opinion . . . that the children of God shall be masters of this world and root out the ungodly. That is a notion in no way suiting the kingdom of the cross. For what should we do with scepters and jurisdiction, if our Saviour would give them to us? We are not made for such things. On the other hand, we respect from the heart those that are called and will take the trouble to rule over us, to be our kings, princes, and protectors.30
The Moravians’ Manual of Doctrine covered Christ’s teaching on nonresistance:
Q. How do the children of God treat their enemies?
A. They love them (Matthew 5:44)
Q. When cursed by them?
A. Then they bless.
Q. When hated by them?
A. Then they do good to them.
Q. When despitefully used by them?
A. Then they pray for them that it may not be laid to their charge.
Q. Why do they act in this manner?
A. That they may be the children of the Father which is in heaven.
Q. Who hath given the greatest example herein?
A. Greater love hath no man than this that he lay down his life for his friends. And Jesus hath reconciled us by his death when we were enemies.
Q. What is one specific rule of Christ?
A. give to him that asketh thee and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.
Q. And another?
A. Whoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.
A. Resist not evil.
Q. For instance?
A. If any man will sue that at the law and take away thy coat let him have thy cloak also.
Q. If any one should lay hands on us?
A. Whoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek turn to him the other also.
When brothers from Herrnhut investigated possibilities of settlement in other lands, their nonresistant position raised questions. Brother Josef, meeting with the Dutch West India Company, explained what they believed at Amsterdam, in 1734. “Beyond a refusal to serve in the army, how far does discipline reach?” Dutch officials asked him. “Would you take part in meting out criminal justice, that is, in capital punishment?”
“No,” Brother Josef replied, “we would not. The government carries the sword, and that not in vain. But the highest discipline we use in the Gemeine is the Ausschluß (excommunication). In this we seek to walk by the rule of Christ and the apostles who exercised no worldly authority.”
When the believers settled in Georgia the British asked their young men to enlist or else hire a substitute. David Nitschmann explained why, for the love of Christ, they could not obey. Neither would they register, or help the British build a fort in Savannah.
“When a person does something against us, we need to be so friendly to him that he soon forgets he wronged us,” wrote the brothers in 1728. “And by doing so he does not become our enemy because of shame.”31
Along with their nonresistant position, the Moravians took Christ’s command literally, not to swear. “We would rather have our hands cut off than raise them to swear an oath,” testified Pilgrims enroute to the New World.
Into all the World
In their Manual of Doctrine the Moravians discussed the responsibilities of Pilgrims sent out to tell the world about Christ:
Q. What do they wait for in the execution of their charge?
A. For open doors 1 Cor. 16:9
Q. What is the sign of this?
A. Many adversaries.
Q. Where is it best to preach?
A. Where Christ is yet unknown.
A. That one might not build upon another man’s foundation.
But along with Scriptural theory they had a wealth of practical experience to draw from. Christian David, for years a roving evangelist and daring knight of the Kingdom, wrote on a journey to Latvia in 1729:
A person unwilling to move from place to place and to live among the common people, or one who cannot survive in poverty, would not get much accomplished here in Livonia. In the four months I have spent here at the Wollmarshof I have suffered more hunger and thirst than I did in Herrnhut during eight years. . . . The one who seeks souls dare seek nothing else, or he loses himself.32
In another letter, Christian David wrote to seekers at Nürnberg:
[To evangelise effectively] one must remember how the dear Saviour once assumed the form of a servant, and while among poor blind people, sat down at their feet. He knew how to fit in anywhere to win people over and persuade them. Even today he adjusts his message to fit all people with their religions, customs, and practices. He gives all of them in every place the most suitable freedom, gifts, powers and mediators.
In the same way, God’s children today should live irreproachably and like true Christians among those that are outside, seeking to remove their prejudice in every conceivable way, approaching them with deference, answering all questions modestly, being of service to them, and showing them love on first opportunity. In all things concerning the church they should seek to adapt themselves, not staying away from public services unless necessary, not abusing the freedom of the children of God, but according to love willingly becoming servants that correctly use what others abuse. They should hallow what others profane, willingly fellowshipping with them in their degenerate sects, but only as the good salt of the earth, and to become all things to all men.33
“One does not start by telling heathen people about the Father, Son and Holy Ghost,” decided the brothers in a meeting at Herrnhut. “Rather, one must start by telling them of the Saviour. Then, when they are children of God, one may go on to speak to them about the Father, the Spirit, and the Holy Three in One.”34 Several years later they added:
Among the heathen one must not speak in an abstract way about a “Great Spirit” or similar concepts. One must speak directly, and at once, about Jesus our Saviour. One must seek to develop the friendship and inclinations of the people toward him. Then, out of the concept of the Saviour comes their understanding of God.35
An early Moravian Pilgrim to the West Indies wrote: “The Methodists’ way of converting people is to shake them over hell, but of the loving Jesus one hears very little. They teach that one must be holy for God to accept us.” In contrast to this, the brothers at Herrnhut wrote in 1739:
Our plan of action as a church is to aim for the heart at once. We attempt to bring all people to a knowledge of Jesus the crucified one in their hearts, and to see the value of his wounds as the most important thing, so that it may remain their motivation from that point on for the rest of their lives.
In a meeting on August 21, 1742, the brothers decided on two rules for Pilgrims sent out. First, they were not to meddle into the work of other Christians. Second, they should “avoid disputes with any contentious person, choosing to remain quiet rather than to argue. On meeting contentious people, they should hear them out, then answer with a terse, ‘That is my view too,’ or, ‘I do not believe that way,” and avoid further argument.”
“What we teach must be so simple,” the brothers agreed, “that whoever wants to argue against us must find himself in the position of speaking against the clear light of the sun. We must be very careful how we refute what others say.”36
Wherever they went, the Moravians held to a clear plan of action. In some places they established “home” communities. In others they simply encouraged seekers in forming fellowships of their own. “To bring the Gospel to the heathen and to establish colonies,” they concluded in 1747, “are two different matters. In the latter case the brothers and sisters must prosper in a material way to keep on living. But in the former they must be resolved to lay material pursuits aside.” Then, no matter what their calling, or how they adapted themselves to local situations, Ludwig von Zinzendorf’s words applied:
If we continue faithful, and preach nothing to any one but what the Holy Ghost has already told them in the spirit, we shall see true and lasting fruit, even though the numbers and noise may be less.37
The Saviour’s Church
“The first purpose of Christ’s death was to save us from sin,” wrote the brothers at Herrnhut. “The second purpose was to bring all of us scattered children of God together in one spirit, in one soul, in one invisible, and finally in a local, visible, body.” To this they added:
Every soul must deal directly with the Saviour. We dare not become middle men in the process. The Saviour must deal personally with every soul, or else the soul has nothing. . . . The all-satisfying heart religion is a matter between the individual and the Saviour alone, but as soon as it becomes a matter between Jesus and I, and this one and that one as well, it is the Gemein (community). In the community of believers the Holy Ghost is prophet, Christ is priest, and we the members are the little church.”38
Describing this Gemeinschaft (community, fellowship) of believers, a Herrnhut hymn writer wrote:
Gemeinschaft with the children of God, how sweet and good it is! Gemeinschaft in the ridicule we face, Gemeinschaft in steady peace, Gemeinschaft from the earliest strirrings of our hearts that were hard as stone, Gemeinschaft on the journey through the valley of the shadow of death to the highway of life. Unknown treasures of the Kingdom of the Cross open up to us when we begin to struggle in Gemeinschaft and become as brothers and sisters one to another. Man was not meant to be alone. Neither did Jesus design the new life to be lived in the wilderness.
Brothers, let us all take care, lest the sweet unity that promises success to what we do—the unity that is our hope of victory in battle, the treasure of the elect, and the entertainment of heroes on their days of rest—should break down.
Remember, souls, the brothers and sisters who love you. Prepare to use for one another the beautiful gifts you received on entering Jesus’ Kingdom. You men, pray without wavering! You women, teach without using words! Young men, struggle against flesh and the devil! Young women, pursue quietness! All of you, run until you grab the prize!
Remember, the whole world rests on rotting pillars. Our work shall stand against it! Let some, diligently supported by the rest, go and engender Jesus-souls. Let us all permit ourselves to be elected ornaments for Salem, the glory and praise of God’s city of peace!39
For as much as the believers at Herrnhut valued their church community, they did not put it into the place of Christ. “The one who developes a close relationship with the church but who does not know the Saviour,” the brothers agreed in 1749, “is a dangerous person. Through people like this, many are brought to ruin.” At the same time, they made it clear they did not consider Herrnhut all there was to the church of Christ.
“The Moravian church dare not be looked at as synonymous with the Church of God,” the brothers agreed. “Even though there may be as many as twenty Christian groups in the world, there is only one Christian Church—one family of God, with one heart and one head. . . . This is the church of all that look to the Saviour.”40 After receiving a sister back into the congregation (from which she had been excommunicated) an early Moravian Pilgrim to Suriname wrote:
In a meeting for the whole congregation we explained our service in the Gospel and the name Herrnhuter usually attached to us . . . . That name has caused all manner of misconceptions and misunderstandings. Far too many times people compare the “Herrnhuter church,” the “Herrnhuter doctrines,” or even the “Herrnhuter religion” with the Lutheran, Reformed or other Christian churches and Judaism. We told the congregation how they ought to see themselves simply as members one of another in our Brüdergemeinde (brothers’ community), and how our Brüdergemeinde in turn is simply a tiny segment of the whole church, the true church and Gemeinde of Christ, partially visible and partially invisible over the face the earth. Our hearts’ desire is that everyone who wants to belong to the church will not rest until the Spirit of Christ has made him a member of the living church and body of Christ. If this would be our goal and become a reality among us it would not happen so often that baptised and communicant members hide sin, covering it up with lies and hypocrisy, only to keep on being counted as brothers and sisters or members of the Herrnhuter church!41
Brother Josef, thinking of similar problems, wrote:
Christianity—that is, all who preach Christ and are called Christians—has been broken up into many groups. Now if every one of those groups lived as closely as possible to the truths with which it is been entrusted, if every one tried continually to lessen its errors and abuses, they might all exist near one another without getting into each other’s way. But if any one of these groups begins to presume it is the Church of Christ, or to present itself as the only church in which a man can be saved, it judges itself too leniently and others too severely.
We cannot deny that some groups are more attractive than others, and that more of the Gospel’s truth is to be found in some than in others. In the same way, more hindrances to the way of godliness may be found in some, and the rules and constitution of others are more in agreement with the Bible. Some leave more room for errors against the doctrine of Jesus, and others control scandalous vices and sins more effectively, etc. Nevertheless, we may hope in God that he will bring many seeking souls to grace in every one of these groups. Even in Elijah’s idolatrous times, the Lord had reserved seven thousand to himself that had not bowed their knee to Baal. In the same way today, even though apostasy is everywhere visible, who would doubt that his power can do the same again? Who would doubt that the Good Shepherd can preserve his sheep—those who know his voice and follow him in simplicity and truth—in and among all the Christian groups?
Certainly the Moravians believed in an “ecumenical and catholic” church (the undivided body of Christ in its entirety. But they believed just as firmly in the need for visible church communities. Ludwig von Zinzendorf wrote:
The Community of God in the Spirit may be called the invisible Church of Christ, as described in Hebrews 12. This is the church everyone enters when he is born again. It is the church above, but there is also a church below: a visible church.
The visible church is either militant or triumphant. The militant church, out of the wisdom of God, has not been unified, neither in belief nor practice, ever since the days of the apostles, except in those places where it has had an outward communion. There the church is to united in order, in love, and in basic beliefs, and the brothers who separate themselves from such a congregation are heretics with the spirit of Korah. These little visible churches are not stationary nor permanent.
The invisible church has many members that do not know the blessing of belonging to such visible congregations. Many of them belong instead to the sects. The sects are large groups of people with one confession who do not have the power of Christ but who confuse confessional unity for real church unity. Where children of God live in such a sect they must discern whether it is harmful or not. Harmful sects are those that teach fundamental errors in doctrine or practice, those that use force to compel people to believe in a certain way, and those who condemn others. Such sects one dare not support nor condone. One must testify against them and do what one can to draw together a fellowship of true followers of Christ. If this is allowed within the sect, it is alright. But if not, one must keep on witnessing fearlessly to the truth, with godliness and honesty, until one gets thrown out of it.
We need to warn all men about the poison of sectarianism in belief and practice, but we should not encourage people to leave the sects at once. Such encouragement has very negative results, and if followed in the wrong spirit can greatly hinder the work of Christ.42
“Our church,” agreed the brothers at Herrnhut, “is a free city for all souls desiring to be true to their consciences. We love other churches too, both from the east and from the west and seek quarrels with none. We do not encourage people to leave other churches to join ours. In fact we do all we can to deter them from doing so. Our only purpose is to point all men to the Head of the Church himself.”43 With this remarkable belief, Herrnhut became one of the few Christian communities as easy to leave as to join. Ludwig von Zinzendorf wrote:
It is a principle among us to set before everyone the unqualified option of going away at any time. Hearts truly laid hold of by the wounds of Jesus, will not go away and get lost. Confidence among brothers may fail, but hearts [preserved by Christ] find their way back.44
Gestures of Humble Deference
The brothers at Herrnhut practised the Christian rites—water baptism, communion in bread and wine, the holy kiss, feetwashing, and others—asking no questions, only performing with joy these “gestures of humble deference” for Christ. Even though they took them seriously, the Moravians did not feel that baptism or communion saved them. “At the cross,” the brothers agreed in 1740, “the blood of Christ was sprinkled over all humanity. Therefore all children are saved.” Several years later they added: “The believer who dies unbaptised is not for that reason condemned.”
Concerned that none should depend on outer rites where inner conviction failed, the brothers agreed in 1753:
Our children are not ready to go along to communion just because they are ours and have reached years of accountability. Rather, when they individually become partakers of God’s life within them, they come to the place where they need this spiritual food.
Even their choir and educational system did not look to the Moravians like anything to lean on. In a meeting they took note:
For the training of children one does not necessarily need institutions like ours. . . . The goal in our home congregations should be for all parents to educate their own children. Our ongoing need for congregational institutions is mute evidence of our shortcoming in this area.45
Such modest views of their own work helped the Moravians to conduct their affairs in a relaxed and joyful way. “In normal situations,” the brothers, for instance, agreed, “chosen leaders should hold communion services. But when they are gone, other honest disciples of Christ, on whom the Spirit rests, may well serve the congregation.”46
Modesty also prevented unhealthy “spiritual competition” and a desire to demonstrate special gifts in public meetings. Christian David wrote:
Jesus and the apostles usually prayed in secret, except during great and extraordinary awakenings, and this is really when one should pray in public. . . . But when one seeks guidance in deep matters, one must do it in quietness and deal with one’s innermost being. In such cases one does not need many words. One does not need much audible prayer, or outward activity.
[The Pietists at Halle] conduct prayer meetings, and that is the end of it. It may be good for beginners, but after they learn how to rattle off long wordy prayers to be heard by men, the results are nil, as examples show.47
A hymn writer at Herrnhut wrote:
The one who desires nothing on earth lets God’s love take care of everything. His inner being remains quiet. His pulse remains normal. His heart is at rest. In the midst of all manner of dangers his vision remains clear.48
Before taking part in communion, Moravian believers washed one anothers’ feet. Their Manual of Doctrine stated:
Q. What action did the Lord Jesus perform towards his friends before his departure?
A. Jesus rose from supper, laid aside his garments and washed his disciples feet.
Q. What compact did he make with them?
A. Since I your Lord and master have washed your feet you ought also to wash one another’s feet.
Q. Did he do it on purpose that they might copy him?
A. He said, “I have given you an example that ye should do as I have done to you.”
Then, followed the “blessed warriors’ meal” in six stages. First we need to confess our sins and forgive the sins of others. Second, we enter by faith “the holy of holies,” that is, collective awareness of being “in Christ, hidden from the world and safe in the wound in his side.” Only in such a condition, the Moravians believed, may communion services become meaningful to us.
The third stage of communion comes with the eating of the bread—Christ, the bread of life, coming into us. Only as he does this, and his presence becomes real, dispelling sin, do heavenly light and joy descend upon us. The fourth stage is the welling up of our love for him, as we remember his body, broken for us. The fifth stage is forgiveness of sins as we drink the wine and believe in the merits of the blood. The sixth and final stage is fellowship one with another around the table of the Lamb, celebrated by the holy kiss of peace.
Brother Josef wrote:
Holy Communion is a mysterious enjoyment of the body and blood of Christ. That is, we enjoy the bread and wine by associating it with the body and blood of Jesus in a manner incomprehensible to us, and therefore inexpressible, whenever the Holy Supper of the Lord is enjoyed according to the mind of Jesus Christ.49
In 1747 the brothers agreed:
In the innermost parts of the Spirit we are with the Saviour every hour and every moment. We are with literally in his presence, but in the Evening Meal we are also with him in a sacramental way. The first is for the heart, the second is also for the sake of Gemeinschaft.
Bowed before the Word
Highly exalting Christ, the Living Word, led believers at Herrnhut to exalt his recorded words as well. “The moment one comprehends the sacrifice of Christ and his eternal love, one comprehends all of Scripture,” the brothers agreed in 1740. “The one who understands the redemption paid for by Christ, understands the highest wisdom and is, of all philosophers, the greatest. . . . Where the understanding of Christ’s work is missing however, even fifty years of good works will be of no avail!”
The brothers also wrote:
We cannot learn doctrine from human books, rather we must wait until the Holy Ghost reveals things to us from the Scriptures, time after time. That is what makes us wise to Kingdom of Heaven. The knowledge of this blesses souls and makes those who are already blessed, more blessed (jedes solches Erkenntnis macht Seelen selig, und die seligen seliger).50
About matters that are against the Scriptures we need ask no questions.51
Where we have a clear command in Scripture, we have no business nor right to examine the matter further—except to discern how and when to obey it, and to whom it applies.52
Ludwig von Zinzendorf, wrote:
I set the gold, the noble gift of the Word, far above worldly possession and wealth. If the Word should no longer count, on what would faith rest? I would give up a thousand worlds before giving up the Word. Being the Word’s witnesses is a higher calling than the world can comprehend. We witness to its power, the power of the Word the Father sent out: the Lamb of God! We, the Bridegroom’s friends and relatives, testify of it.
World, you see wonders wrought by Jesus, the Word, in human flesh. He works wonders in the lives of the poor from whose faces the light of eternity beams! You see this from afar. Does it not move you?53
If nothing else, it moved the believers at Herrnhut to an unsurpassed degree, as described in a statement from the Pilgergemeine, meeting at London, in 1742:
The distinguishing mark of all our congregations is to cleave to the Lamb, our mediator, not hindering him in declaring anything his Father wants to tell us. . . . We know not where to fly but to him and his wounds We can appeal to nothing higher, to know him is for us a sea of perfection. His love, in which the lies the mystery of his atonement, is most beautiful to us. All the saints in heaven will never have admired it enough, and to sing of it unceasingly is our theme. If we, as a result of this affection, are accused of a certain vagueness or indifference to everything else, we own that accusation to be true.54
“Vicit agnus noster, eum sequamur (Our Lamb has conquered, let us follow him)!” became the song and banner of the renewed Moravian Church.
1 Jacob John Sessler (see Bibliography) wrote: “Zinzendorf, although a pietist, was not long a follower of the pietism typical of Halle, because he could not correlate his own experience with the struggle of repentance which was emphasized there. Whereas they stressed repentance, struggle, fear, and an angry God, the count emphasized love, peace, and fellowship with Christ. For him regeneration was instantaneous and complete, and with it the reign of love and fellowship with Christ began immediately, resulting in gradual sanctification.”
2 Cranz, David, Alte und Neue Brüder-Historie, Barby, 1771, pg. 231
3 Berliner Reden, 1738
4 Jacob John Sessler, Communal Pietism
5 Zinzendorf, Gedichte
7 Gesangbuch, 76
8 Berliner Reden, 1738
9 Zinzendorf, Er das Licht und wir der Schein
10 Nine Publick Discourses Preached in Fetter Lane Chapel, 1746
11 Gesangbuch, 217
12 ibid., 441
13 ibid., 430
14 August Gottlieb Spangenberg, Idea Fidi Fratrum
15 Gedichte: Kreuz, des Christen Los
16 ibid.: Christenberuf
17 Berliner Reden, 1738
18 Gesangbuch, 506
19 Dienerkonferenz, 1746
21 ibid. 1747
22 Gesangbuch, 218
23 ibid. 1778
24 ibid. 432
25 Berliner Reden, 1738
26 Gesangbuch, 134
27 Berliner Reden, 1738
29 Abridged from Gesangbuch, 2220
30 Berliner Reden, 1738
31 Dienerkonferenz, 1728
32 Letter to the brothers at Herrnhut, from Riga, November, 1729.
33 From a letter to seekers at Nürnberg, ca. 1730.
34 Dienerkonferenz, 1740
35 ibid. 1747
36 ibid. 1741
37 Berliner Reden, 1738
38 Dienerkonferenz, 1753
39 Gesangbuch, 711
40 Dienerkonferenz, 1753
41 Diarium von Bambey, 8. Oktober, 1781
42 Extract-Schreibens, d.d. Mens. Febr. 1730, nach W. in Ehstland
43 Dienerkonferenz, 1753
44 Berliner Reden, 1738
45 Dienerkonferenz, 1747
46 ibid. 1753
47 From a letter to Ludwig von Zinzendorf, June, 1732.
48 Gesangbuch, 474
49 Spangenberg, Idea Fidi Fratrum
50 Dienerkonferenz, 1738
51 ibid. 1740
52 ibid. 1753
53 Gedichte: Liebe zum Wort
54 From the record of a meeting of elders and deacons at London, 1742.